Introduction

 

Hyperpigmentation, such as acne scars and age spots, affects the majority of the population. Even though they are rather common, they can be a nuisance if you are aiming for clear, perfect skin. Fortunately, there are several options available to help even out the skin tone and reduce the appearance of imperfections. Understanding the various types of hyperpigmentation and its causes is necessary, however, to achieve this. When you know what's wrong with your skin, it's easier to find a solution. Continue reading this article for all the necessary information on how you can get rid of hyperpigmentation and reveal your radiant skin.

 

Hyperpigmentation: its different types and causes

 

The term "hyperpigmentation" is used to describe a wide range of skin conditions, including scarring, unevenness, discoloration, and other forms of scarring. They are further categorized into various types based on the underlying causes. Among the most common causes of hyperpigmentation include ultraviolet (UV) damage, inconsistency in melanin synthesis, acne, and other skin disorders.

 

Different types of Hyperpigmentation

Hyperpigmentation is categorized under several sub-genres. There are three primary categories of hyperpigmentation that are widely recognized. They are segregated based on the causes, treatment, and symptoms.

 

  1. PIH or Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation: It appears when your body is reacting to cure inflammation. This appears right after popping a pimple, rash or an injury. All these trigger productions of melanosomes leading to excess melanin production that appears as PIH.
  2. PIE or Post-Inflammatory Erythema: It is caused by broken blood vessels closer to the skin surface or agitated capillaries. When you have any skin trauma like a blood clot, the skin dilates to increase blood flow and repair it leading to the PIE.
  3. Melasma: It is a skin condition where large grey-brown or brown patches spread out over the skin, especially on the face, neck, and chest. The causes are more complex here like genetics, pregnancy, and hormonal issues.

 

Recognizing signs of hyperpigmentation

Many skin conditions result in uneven skin texture or color but not all of them are hyperpigmentation. Here are a few tell-tale signs to recognize this specific trouble:

  • Acne scar marks have become permanent
  • Blue-purple or reddish blotch around any inflammation like a cystic pimple
  • Brown or greyish discoloration as patches on the skin, especially on the forehead, and cheeks
  • Reddish inflammations due to sun-burn and resultant discoloration

 

Causes of Hyperpigmentation 

Hyperpigmentation occurs when your body produces too much melanin. Melanin production is triggered by a wide range of aggravators. For instance, to counteract the detrimental effects of the sun's rays, the skin produces an abundance of melanin. It can also occur if you have a skin injury that is attempting to heal. Overall, when the melanosomes are activated, the generation of melanin is also influenced.

 

Hyperpigmentation can be caused by a variety of factors, including acne scars, UV damage, skin traumas, and even a preexisting skin disorder. You can identify the type by examining the pigmentation's sources and texture.

 

Best ingredients for hyperpigmentation

 

Thankfully, any type of hyperpigmentation can be treated by incorporating the right skincare products into your routine. Choose products that have at least one or more of the following ingredients and are targeted to combat hyperpigmentation:

 

  • Tranexamic acid

It helps to break down blood clots which often cause hyperpigmentation. Hyperpigmentation due to injuries and trauma is best treated with Tranexamic acid.

 

  • Alpha arbutin

It is extracted from bearberry, blueberry, and cranberry plants. The ingredient lightens the pigmentation by inhibiting melanin production to some extent.

 

  • AHA

It is a mild chemical exfoliator that is an acid derived from plant extracts. It is a gentle exfoliant that encourages skill cell renewal. As the skin regenerates, the skin’s discolorations and pigmentations fade too.

 

  • Vitamin A, B, and C

Vitamin A (retinol), Vitamin B3 (niacinamide), and Vitamin C protect the skin from various environmental aggressors and are particularly good to treat Melasma and PIE. Particularly Vitamin C serums (that have L-Ascorbic acid) when used above 10% help to reduce pigmentation effectively while keeping it hydrated.

 

  • Azelaic acid

This ingredient is particularly suitable for those suffering from PIE, melasma, and other similar skin conditions. It minimizes melanin production, has a calming effect, and kills acne-causing bacteria.

 

Tips to reduce hyperpigmentation 

Here are a few things you can do to significantly reduce or fade hyperpigmentation:

  • Use SPF to prevent sun damage. A hydrating sunscreen like Foxtale Cover Up Sunscreen which has niacinamide can help protect your skin in the best way
  • Use specific ingredients mentioned above which are meant to treat hyperpigmentation, dedicatedly as a part of your skincare routine
  • Hydrate your skin by investing in products with sodium hyaluronate and ceramides that prevents water loss
  • Exfoliate your skin with AHA or BHA to treat specific concerns. These are mild chemical exfoliants that do not cause micro-scarring

It takes time to significantly reduce hyperpigmentation. Diligent use of the right skincare products along with overall healthcare is essential to minimize it.